This is the question

Bourouiba L. Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4756

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2763852

Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions
Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19
Lydia Bourouibia (26 March 2020)

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99 Comments

  1. Avatar

    So what can be done to get these droplets out of the air? Opening a window maybe but isn't that just spreading the disease further? Probably not if there's plenty of sunlight to fry the bugs.
    Options:
    UVC. Very effective at damaging viruses, bacteria and pretty well anything. Problem is the ozone generated. Ozone is also a good bug killer but it's not too kind to human lungs. There's also HEPA filters and electrostatic filters. Fog / haze is also used in some systems. This works by trapping the small particles in larger droplets which are then easily filtered.

  2. Avatar

    At home, in a sick room, close off home HVAC vents (especially the return air going to the furn/ac) and put a fan in a window blowing air out. A space heater may be required. I've posted a video about maintaining a sick room at home.

  3. Avatar

    P2/N95 masks when fit properly make breathing hard when worn for more than a few hours. This makes compliance difficult if worn for a long shift, but easy if worn for a 1 hour shopping trip.
    Lots of sensible people (like your viewers) who saw the Chinese news and paid attention when our maths teachers mentioned exponential growth bought P2/N95 masks and hand sanitiser in February when these were easily available. Why should we be persecuted for not being stupid? The only problem is we didn't expect the great toilet paper blight.

  4. Avatar

    What about the eyes?

  5. Avatar

    You’re outside a car drives by with the window down and coughs.
    You are now infected.
    Always mask up.

  6. Avatar

    Oh, FFS, my geography teacher, when I was 9 years old, Mr Cobblestone, used to say as much when someone sneezed in class!
    – it's not exactly 'science'!
    – 'cover your nose when you sneeze, boy! Don't you know that when you sneeze, the germs travel round the room at 120mph!'
    – now apparently, this is 'science' that we need to be told by 'scientists' because we've unlearnt basic hygiene!
    – no wonder the west is collapsing under a wave of coronavirus that most of Asian can cope with with minimal distruption

  7. Avatar

    Were the mechanics of coughing, sneezing, and aerolization just rediscovered? Why would the spread through the air of this virus be any different than the air spread of other viruses or colds? The instruction to not wear mask (until just recently) was at best gross negligence, at worse manslaughter. And the people who believed that are guilty of too much deference to authority and gullibility!

  8. Avatar

    excellent job, thx. regarding Czech republic, I have sent you an email with some official status update documents

  9. Avatar

    So… social distancing should really mean, "If you see someone, you're too close."

  10. Avatar

    Forget masks…. every home should have a hermetically sealed airlock and when you go out you need a full bio-hazard level 4 fully enclosed and pressurised hazmat suit. Anything less than that is pointless. When you return the suit needs to be decontaminated with Ozone, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine and UVC light. The suit needs to be removed without touching the outside surfaces and then double bagged and incinerated. As you come through the airlock naked you then need to shower before entering the main house. Simple.

  11. Avatar

    You overly historic, totalitarian government loving idiots what have you done?!… You've ruined people's businesses and income, and now millions of young people run out of money and what do they do??? They return to live with their old parents. You arrogant arrogant idiots who think they know best and should force the world to be managed according to your stupid stupid political ideas have now sent millions of young people back to live with their old parents.

  12. Avatar

    Footwear, weve seen countries around the world spraying footpaths and shopping centre paths, would it be reasonable to assume that droplets are accumulating on the floors which then transfer to footwear, the use of hands then to remove footwear later transfers virus to hands then without hand washing leads to contamination of people. Do we need to be talking about ground contamination?

  13. Avatar

    PPHHHHHTT….. WHAT MASK. I'll let you screw my sister if you can find some!

  14. Avatar

    Hi John. I'm interested why you keep saying that surgical masks provide no protection to the wearer when all current NHS PPE guidance says that they offer similar protection to FFP3 masks in health care situations (approx 80% reduction). This data was gathered from the study "Effectiveness of Masks and Respirators Against Respiratory Infections in Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".

    Although I do agree with you that emerging research is suggesting there is the possibility of airborne type spread with COVID.

  15. Avatar

    And yet in Australia we are still being told only those sick should be wearing masks. If your sick you shouldn't be out anyway.
    To be told not to wear masks make absolutely no sense at all.
    I've made mine from a bandana, its better than nothing.

  16. Avatar

    Disposal of mask, which is laden with bad guys, could do with a look.

  17. Avatar

    I’ve been saying on my YouTube channel since early January that this is airborne and it was serious.
    My wife is a healthcare worker in new york and we have a YouTube channel covering coronavirus.
    Great work dr. John. ❤️

  18. Avatar

    Please, could you check about this history?: https://archive.is/ONUmi Talks about the mechanism of Covid-19.

  19. Avatar

    Thank you for these reports Dr. Campbell. I’m curious about the many homemade fabric masks I’m seeing more and more of. Do these protect anyone?

  20. Avatar

    3 months old news in Korea

  21. Avatar

    What are your thoughts on tonic water containing quinine being something that we should take to help? Is this incorrect?

  22. Avatar

    As someone who works in retail I'm probably fucked then I'll just have to accept it

  23. Avatar

    Thank you for spreading the word Dr. Campbell!

  24. Avatar

    John, why are all the hospitals empty? This is not a joke. You can see it clearly by typing 'empty hospitals worldwide' into youtube. From Durham to Los Angeles. Empty hospitals. Really. So what does this mean. People are terrified. My friend in NYC has been to the big hospital that is supposed to be overflowing and nothing…loads of vids on line about that. Yet Cuomo is telling everyone that its a war-zone. … am I missing something here?

  25. Avatar

    @Dr. John Campbell
    Regarding testing, I read Germany are doing something called pool testing as scenario where they collect swab samples from 16people to test the mix. If it comes our negative then the whole 16 people ate confirmed negative. With just one test instead of 16tests. If it come out positive, then they use binary search algorithm (pair them in twos and test) to figure out who is positive. That way the maximum they will ever need to test 16people if there is at least a positive person in the group. is 9 test kits. What do you think of This. Would you advice other countries to follow this method of testing to improve testing? This can be used to at least discover the spread of the virus with less cost.

  26. Avatar

    Ok, well, a quick google tells us smoke particles are 10um in size and viruses are typically 20nm – 300nm with SARS being 120nm
    – so, it seems like wishful thinking to suppose that Coronavirus will fall out the air safely rather than remaining suspended indefinitely…

  27. Avatar

    Hi John,
    I've had an idea regarding the treatment of those patients that require ventilation. I don't know if this would work but I thought I would put it out there a perhaps you or others reading this might be able to make use of it should it be advantageous to treatment.
    I was wondering whether liquid ventilation would work. It's my understanding that the virus causes a breakdown of the membranes in the lungs causing fluid to pass into lungs. Additionally a sticky mucus is created that prevents the lungs from inflating fully.

    Liquid ventilation is currently used for premature babies in limited cases. Could this same technology be used to treat patients suffering with covid? The oxygenated PFCs used as the liquid could also act to remove this mucus from the lungs and be filtered during exhalation.
    I have no medical background at all and didn't know who to discuss this with. Perhaps you may have contacts that may find this idea of interest.
    All the best
    Andrew

  28. Avatar

    The airborne nature of this virus was obvioius months ago. We saw the Chinese dressed in hazmat suits running down the street spraying disinfectant in the air. This virus was made in China, maybe in a wet-market, but more likely in that reaearch lab in Wuhan. They made it so they knew what it could do.

  29. Avatar

    Geez, almost like the "panicking fear spreaders" calling for this to be called a pandemic, ban all travel, and for everyone to wear a mask back in January were right all along. Who could have thought? No one could have seen this coming! OH, MAYBE EXCEPT FOR PEOPLE LOOKING AT CHINESE DATA AND TRYING TO WARN US.

  30. Avatar

    I’m in the hotel industry what kind of concerned should we have in rooms after guest leave that may be infected

  31. Avatar

    Sir, social distancing 7.8 billion people to the characteristics of an aerosolized highly contagious virus of this sort is not a long term strategy. It is worth practicing until a more reasonable and sustainable solution arises. I believe that solution is for 7.8 billion people to develop antibodies and immunity to this virus under circumstances favorable to the amount of time it takes for a person's immune system to detect the new foreign object and provide antibodies to it. I would either give 7.8 billion people plasma from recovered people or provide 7.8 billion people with ten tablets each 200mg hydroxychloroquine, 250mg tablets azithromycin and zinc for a 5 day treatment….making symptoms of initial infection mild until the person's immune system is winning the fight with it's own antibody production…or mix and match these two options for those best suited for it's use. Everyone needs to develop a natural immunity to this virus. Vaccine takes too long to produce…and the virus could mutate, rendering the vaccine no longer effective against a morphed version in the future…whereas the two options mentioned earlier should retain it's efficacy.

  32. Avatar

    So basically you don’t stand a snowballs chance in hell to avoid this. Anything coming out of a China should be discounted as BS.

  33. Avatar

    — is it possible that something like this would kill the germs withing the environment?
    one droplet against another droplet

    Joseph Lister's Carbolic Spray ( silent ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7WLyGmb4IyQ

  34. Avatar

    The retrospectoscope. Thanks. I'll be using that one. 😉

  35. Avatar

    look at what happens when people vape or smoke how far out or up it goes…. mask that hold moisture not a good idea as it will hold bugs not prevent user getting them! Stop others getting sick only… and the amount of numpty's ( professional or otherwise) not practising social distancing is crazy!

  36. Avatar

    To mask, always.

  37. Avatar

    Wuhan has been burning virus patients alive since February in order to maintain its "zero reporting" policy.
    "… some funeral homes were distributing as many as 5,000 sets of remains a day. Estimates as to the number of sets of remains distributed last week in Wuhan range from 30,000 to 46,000 people."
    "…the strict lockdown that saw government officials welding Wuhan residents in their homes was still ongoing."

  38. Avatar

    Hello Dr. Do you know about Koch's Four Postulates?…. This is all nonsense when science has not proved there is such an identified Virus as Covid 19….This is a very helpful video that explained it…From a fellow Doctor…Dr Thomas Cowan…. https://youtu.be/m3LgrcDAlJs

  39. Avatar

    I feel perhaps we underestimate people in their ability to use masks well. Yes they might stop a sneeze in its tracks but that then is contained in the mask, which then gets touched by the wearer and will be all wet. Then the wearer's in the shops and they drop it all over the food/shelves/surfaces off their hands.
    People I have seen in masks are forever adjusting them thinking they are safe, with little regard for touching the annoying damp thing on their face.
    There was someone running the the other day with a mask round their neck, they only put it on when they were running past someone then they pulled it down again.
    Is it still benificial to wear a mask if it's being constantly poked at?

  40. Avatar

    Ask Billy Gates about masks and so on…..

  41. Avatar

    Is good people to caver the face because you can stop siniz 👍

  42. Avatar

    Mask and eye protection is the way to go.

  43. Avatar

    I have been subbed to this channel and watching these videos since mid January..

    So you can understand my confusion when I see this one and think..

    Bruh, we still talking about masks?

  44. Avatar

    Smashing information Dr C, a luv thaccent!
    I wonder if the projectiles lose their moisture in flight and deploy the virus cloud. (Edit: then you said it!!!)
    I would suggest only mopping floors unless you have special vacuums, definitely don't sweep.

  45. Avatar

    SURELY, if we knew (or suspected), the virus was spread via droplets, then we knew that coughing and sneezing would travel far greater distances than 2m (this is age old knowledge) and we should have told people very, very clearly and increased the distancing or made it very very clear that 2m only applied to ‘normal’ breathing conditions. And WHY are we concentrating on stopping people from quietly sitting down soaking up some Vitamin D but positively allowing others to jog or run straight at you, heavily exhaling and panting in the name of being allowed their daily bout of exercise? 1) the vast majority of runners are not following even the most basic of social distancing and 2) the advice should also be for them to be required to increase their distancing to 5 or 6 metres. Personally, I would ban them from running altogether. They are a complete health hazard in the current circumstances. There just appears to be such stupid rules being made; ones that don’t appear to make any sense at all.

  46. Avatar

    Dear sir, I watch your program every day and I like what you are doing just 1 remark that a country like Belgium where I live are now 2240 deaths on a population of 11.000.0000, number of deaths 240 a day . If you compair that to Italy with a population of 61.000.000 that would make 1331 a day, or in Spain 1091 deaths a day. Imagine 1443 deaths a day in the UK, your country. These numbers we never saw in Italy, Spain the UK…. Keep on the good work

  47. Avatar

    No difference at all in normal death rates over the decades watch U.K. Column

  48. Avatar

    Went to see the first Deadpool in Imax,was three seats away from another movie goer who coughed (hacking),they did not cover their mouth.

    Already knew I was doomed,sure enough two days later,developed sore throat( warning immediately went out and purchased three bottle of orange juice and cans of soup) and day four a damn cold.

    Just like the movie Outbreak, when that sick/virus person coughed and the entire audience got sick. 😷

  49. Avatar

    I don't like people who cof😤o siniz bihide me people the don't care that is diskstinig

  50. Avatar

    when gov alow people inside supermarkets without masks this never stop'' why chineses dont alowed''

  51. Avatar

    Caver☠️😷😍

  52. Avatar

    This was interesting, thanks for alerting us. Perhaps the research done in 2015 pertains. They used negative ionizers in the room, with the ions attaching to the particles. Then positively charged collector plates on the wall would attract and effectively "clean the air". https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279065550_Ionizing_air_affects_influenza_virus_infectivity_and_prevents_airborne-transmission

  53. Avatar

    https://youtu.be/-TUlMAmVDRI
    You all issued this peak. Go in about 7 minutes.

  54. Avatar

    I think it was early March you reviewed a paper by Chinese epidemiologists, who concluded that someone on a bus caught the virus 30 minutes after the person spreading it left the bus on a different part of the bus. It seems many governments have been ignoring Chinese studies and advice from the start of this… (Just got to the part of the video where you refer to that study..!)

  55. Avatar

    In Thailand masks are also compulsory if you want to do the shopping or even go outside in some provinces.

  56. Avatar

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zq-OBNft2OM check this Dr John and thanks for efforts on updating us daily 🙂

  57. Avatar

    also check Jordan Country for its proactive actions and not reactive

  58. Avatar

    Dr John, experts say the virus most likely reactivated—rather than people being reinfected—after testing positive a 2nd time in a relatively short frame. This report is out of Korea and China has reported the same. NY daily news dot com is source. Now I warned you it's too early to call this virus as normal with no after effects. Pay attention!!

  59. Avatar

    It's like it's been engineered that way. It even has a dormant mode, where people think they are getting better, when in fact it's merely following a pre-determined genetically engineered sequence from evolution to devolution and back, maximising its survival via a cloak and dagger approach. It's the most deadly the virus the world has seen for a long time. Perhaps even in history, by the time it's done its nasty work.

  60. Avatar

    Just wanted to say thank you John for all the videos especially covid 19.. I was this today and thought of a spark of joy at this sad time. 💙💛
    https://youtu.be/_mpT2vJgzp0

  61. Avatar

    The findings were obvious, but the assumptions that were wrong since the 1930's jjustified the publication, I suppose, to shift beliefs/assumptions.

  62. Avatar

    would it spread further with people who vape

  63. Avatar

    How come all the docs dieing on the NHS frontline are ethnics, are the white docs all hiding on youtube or something?

  64. Avatar

    Your country needs you, stop fing about on youtube and go and do some good in an NHS hospital

  65. Avatar

    Pathogenic payloads.

  66. Avatar

    I wear my half face respirator mask. It protects me from viruses and others. If I won't get infected, then I can't infect others.

  67. Avatar

    I have been posting on this channel for people to wear masks for almost two months now. Telling people that they need to wear masks, even if they have to make them home made. Warning people that they need to start wearing masks immediately. This “Dr.” Campbell has been REMOVING my comments, sometimes within minutes of me posting. I know it wasn’t YouTube that was removing my comments because I’ve also posted the very same comments on other channels and they weren’t removed. Be aware that this “Dr” also buys into every word uttered from the WHO without question. The WHO is CORRUPT and basically does everything it can to protect China’s interest. The leader of the WHO (Tedros) isn’t even a medical doctor. Tedros is a former Ethiopian politician who acted in a totalitarian fashion and was given a very questionable doctorate.

    While this nurse Campbell is very good at explaining medical information to the general public, be aware that you should NOT trust him to tell you the full truth. Make sure you look at lots of other sources of information about the pandemic too!

  68. Avatar

    In Hong Kong, aside from masks, some of us also wear eye goggles as we believe you can get infected with COVID-19 through the eyes as well. Some people also wear a hat with a face shield.

  69. Avatar

    I like turtles

  70. Avatar

    Biggest mistake in all this was Governments not banning flights in and out of China until about mid march.Every ordinary person on the street knew this was wrong.Aviation has spread this around the world.

  71. Avatar

    I am absolutely disgusted by the response from CDC and other government agencies in regards to wearing masks. Your telling me, your going to force businesses to close and lock us in our homes, but you dont think it would be useful or effective to wear masks! And then when you do decide to tell us to wear a mask, you say we should stick a bandana around our face! ABSOLUTE LUNACY! This is why you prepare yourself and your family, because the government is useless!

  72. Avatar

    1:14 "here am I" Dr. John Campbell is a lizardman confirmed!

  73. Avatar

    Just stay home. It's in the air. Literally.

  74. Avatar

    I have a question hopefully you can answer, and maybe do a video to explain to others, people are dying in hospitals around the world from or because of covid-19, how can we bee sure these people have not died because of influenza because the symptoms are almost identical, can the tests be trusted, I have read that they use the same test that they use for influenza.

  75. Avatar

    I remember way back in 5th grade health, about the spreading of germs. Been reluctant to enter mass transit or large gatherings ever since. And, forced air large places.

  76. Avatar

    How in 2020 we have to remind folk to wash their hands or cough away from folk.! Hobestly I'm gobsmacked. I'm 56 years old and was brought up to wash my hands before eating, after toilet etc. My word, all common sense stuff which should have been instilled in our children and their kids. I cannot believe my ears,.! Its put a stop to all of your travel plans, proms, occasions etc. Please if nowt else and you come out of this Wash your bloody hands and cover your mouth when you cough.

  77. Avatar

    The ONLY thing that surprises me in this “big reveal” study of properties and modes of what and how a human respirates moisture and etc. (across all known modes e.g. talking, breathing, coughing, and sneezing.) in relation to this virus—is the large travel distance and speed of a sneeze in comparison to a cough. I feel a little silly about that; because it strikes me as “well, of course!”, but again I myself have had some very violent coughs in my lifetime, so perhaps I have a tendency to rate a cough as high as a sneeze for understandable reasons. | So. ALL these properties strike me as absolute bog-standard OBVIOUS common sense. I feel rather like I got taken in and participated in an “Emperor’s New Clothes” play by even politely listening to various “surface only” “it can’t live” “really it’s YOU using your hands to give it to your eyes/nose mouth.” prattle. These were thin, nonsensical narratives designed to hold panic at bay in a science-fearing public. | What am I—the original genius of our times? C’mon! FYI, I am not a typically germaphobic person; everything is literally all a round us all the time, and in general we’re doing pretty good! We have cheerful, hardy immune systems that carry on and take care of us when we sleep, hydrate, take moderate exercise, eat fresh foods with few preservatives—and often when we don’t the body is a miraculous wonder and takes great care of our experience any way! I don’t regularly think it is good for an average person in an average circumstance to use things like hand gel, antibacterial soap, or anti-bac plastics (for example in cutting boards.) (Basically, I think they are very high in chemicals, and having personally sensitive skin and recently lungs, I think it’s good for people to have simpler and reduced exposure to chemicals in their daily lives, generally.) The point of this “getting to know me” diary is to say that while I always inferred greater circulation, travel, and longevity properties to Coronavirus than these “superstitiously small” earlier reports, I am not typically a very fearful and obsessive “The Germs!!!!!!! We will die!!! Lysol it/use the hand gel!” Runaway fear person.

  78. Avatar

    If you didn't before!

  79. Avatar

    If it makes you feel a little better going out shopping, then wear it l say.

  80. Avatar

    Thanks for your excellent lecture!
    This is a link to a face mask DIY method, I'm interested as I work in front line NHS role with loose masks, no eye protection ect.
    https://youtu.be/W6d3twpHwis

  81. Avatar

    Black Shipp mmme!

  82. Avatar

    This explains why the people on cruise ships, although "locked down" in their cabins, were infected by others through the AC system .

  83. Avatar

    Everyone should wear a mask in public. It is so fcked up in North America as wearing mask gets you beaten up.

  84. Avatar

    Didn't know you were so tall XD

  85. Avatar

    this is a no brainer … yes .. wear a mask !!!! waste of time even discussing it … it should be law when going outside to cover your faces with anything …..

  86. Avatar

    Joggers running past people don't seem to give a monkeys who they puff and blow over.

  87. Avatar

    Dr. John Campbell, your thoughts about UV lights for killing germs etc from multiplying.

  88. Avatar

    Just wanted to bring to your attention my state of Wisconsin…. they held state wide voting yesterday. It was a crap show and I’m willing to bet in 2 weeks WI cases will skyrocket! Apparently getting new officials is more important than citizen lives! Ugh – Embarrassed to be a Wisconsinite today!

  89. Avatar

    Eyes eyes eyes. People forget about their eyes

  90. Avatar

    Just wondering wouldn’t the vaccine for tuberculosis work for now

  91. Avatar

    Thank you Dr. Campbell. Do you think we should be testing for the presence of Antibodies in healthy persons? Would this data help to see how many have begun to experience herd immunity for this Virus. There is no cure for the common cold (Ancestoral Corona Virus) so I am confused by the notion that we can create herd immunity.

  92. Avatar

    "Here am I" Dr. Campbell, reptilian confirmed.

  93. Avatar

    Isn't it hard to breath with this virus? Wear a mask when you are sick and cannot breath well? Hell on earth.

  94. Avatar

    I've been saying wear a mask since the beginning! It really triggers people for some reason.

  95. Avatar

    Masks do nothing. We need to buy more toilet paper!

  96. Avatar

    If this is indeed true at least half the population has already been infected.

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