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Estimating the number of infections and the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in 11 European countries (30 March)

Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

European unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions

Data from countries with more advanced epidemics

Slowing growth in daily reported deaths in Italy from interventions implemented several weeks earlier.

Italy, R0 close to 1 around the time of lockdown (11th March)

Interventions in 11 countries have averted 59,000 deaths up to 31 March

Many more deaths will be averted

Between 7 and 43 million individuals have been infected up to 28th March, (1.88% and 11.43% of the population)

Attack rate, highest in Spain followed by Italy and lowest in Germany and Norway

Lag of 2-3 weeks between transmission changes and deaths

Current interventions should remain in place to provide reassurance that transmission is slowing.

Italy, 60 m population
1.88% of 60m = 1, 128,000
Deaths up to today = 13, 115 = 1.16%
At 11.43% of population = 6,858,000
With 13,115 deaths = 0.2%


  1. Avatar

    Very nice video by the way. Good to see light at the end of the tunnel. For the sake of everything!

  2. Avatar Something else is going on. We aren't being told the truth by the media.

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    The whole thing is a hoax!

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    I think I had it in late December..fever, difficulty breathing and lost sense of smell and taste…🇨🇦

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    in the end even if the death rate is less than the flu, the reason will be because we all took steps to reduce the number of infected that in turn will reduce the stress the health care industy is facing right now and also, you could have thousands of non covid related deaths prevented because they will have undelayed treatments. All of our economies will rebound our dead loved ones can't.

    Stay Home, Stay Safe, and be smart

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    The doctor's calculation of 13,115 deaths (numerator) perhaps should have a denominator of far less than 6,858,000, because today's total accumulated deaths are people who were infected 2, 3 or 4 weeks ago. In other words, should the lag time time from infection to death be calculated in the model? If the model is estimating 6,858,000 today, then you have to work backwards to estimate what the infected # was at some point in the past. For example, if asymptomatic is 6 days, symptoms are 7 days, and serious/hospitalization is 7 days, that's about 3 weeks from the time a person is infected to the time of death. If the doubling rate of infections in the past was every 6 days, that would mean about 3 doubling periods between today's accumulated death total and the time they actually caught the virus. Working backward, the denominator would be about 850,000, not 6,858,000. Therefore in this scenario the CFR would be about 1.5%. I may be totally wrong, but it seems incomplete to have today's total deaths dived by today's cases. Just a thought.

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    Could possibly be like h1n1 but I think the ro is higher at least 2 or 3 if I remember right h1n1 was 1 so this will move faster then h1n1 and that is what causes the high rate and fast deaths

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    Just a model with surly much false facts used

  9. Avatar

    He sounds so disappointed that the threat is massively downgraded ..ah was mostly all overblown fear porn, sorry (not).

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    Dr. Campbell, I am amazed by your continued dedication to enlightening the world on this unpredictable and ever-changing Pandemic. Thank you from the bottom of my heart…
    At the same time, I worry about you, Sir. I hope you are giving yourself an equal partition of lovingkindness that you share with all of us. I know that this Pandemic will end, and I want you to be with us feeling healthy and happy post-Pandemic! Please get extra rest, drink more tea, and reflect upon how much peace and comfort you have provided to us, when everywhere all hell is breaking loose. You are the “silver lining” of the CoVid19 darkness.
    I would be honored to meet you, and share a chat over some afternoon tea.
    I hope you continue to inform us on other interesting medical information, after CoVid19 is behind us. Your teaching is clear, concise, and stellar.
    Again, thank you, Sir, for your dedication and expertise. You have been a virtual lifeline to all who need calm amongst the storm. Please take good care of yourself. I will always remember your voice, and kind eyes, forever.

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    This is all wrong. The study used a 1% fatality rate to calculate the estimate of current infections. You used their current infection amount while ignoring everything else of their formulas (estimating the growth over time due to delay in death which is average of 23 days according to that study). So by definition, it is 1% according to this.

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    Zinc Ionophore Activity of Quercetin and Epigallocatechin-Gallate: From Hepa 1-6 Cells to a Liposome Model – PubMed
    If you can't get chloroquine to push zinc into the cells. You can use quercetin and green tea.

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    CBS admits to using Italian hospital footage to present NYC scene +Comfort only using 20 / 1000 beds !!!

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    Your body can defend itself against a natural viral infection. I do not trust big pharma. A shot (vaxÇine) bypasses the natural path of viral invasion (through your membranes). Could the anti-body test, that is mentioned in the video, put one's health at risk as a method for the nefarious pharmaceuticals companies to give you an illness? Disease? Poison? They'd have to sign a promise (with a guaranteed payoff if anything abnormal occurs) for me to even consider taking any of their tests.

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    The difficulty in trying to determine what percent of population has already been infected is:
    1. population density changes over geographical location. So what might be 3% in a rural area, may be 15% in a city.
    2. Because the period of illness / time one may test positive is so long on this; most of your infected population because of "exponential growth rate" at the beginning of this pandemic will test positive.

    So if 50,000. tests have been conducted in a particular geographic area and 5000 are positive; that's still about a "10% of population infected" rate; because those who would be recovered (cases totally missed) would not be "recovered" enough to "test negative" in this month long time span. Because you are still at 25,000 negative tests.

    Now 6 months from now, that demographic will shift as the numbers recovered increase. So, at this point (onset) of the pandemic; to find 10% infected in a given area, still represents most plausible numbers infected, even if there are ill people who have not been detected.

    At this point, it is still possible to "ball park" percentile not infected, based on percentile in a given area who test negative. In other words, at this point in the pandemic, you are not going to "miss" mass numbers of those "recovered" because not enough time has passed yet, for those to "become recovered". We are still to close in "elapsed time" to the beginning of the pandemic.

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    How does the "john" figures of 1.16% and 0.2% for COVID-19 compare to the Influenza typical death rates ? and if comparable, why all the hysteria?

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    Yes I wouldn't be surprised at all if it has already gone through the population. It's not the first time I've heard this point about the number of people likely already infected. If true it would also prove that most of us are absolutely fine with covid-19 and makes this lockdown look ridiculous and Sweden look even smarter.

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    for more precise prediction search for "vaccines won't work"

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    Many comments say that since it takes two to three weeks for an infection to become a death, you should be comparing today's deaths with the number infected two or three weeks ago. I agree.

  20. Avatar

    Keeping the plandemic alive one video at a time..

  21. Avatar

    where has the seasonal flu gone? no need for a flu shot anymore since corona virus seems to knocking off all the weak ones. In 2018, England lost 26,400 to the flu. None of that this year. that's good news.

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    The economic effects of this are gonna be huge

  23. Avatar

    I have learned more in one video than all the government updates. I think he should get the job to do all the government updates. He explains it in away that even I can understand. Thanks 👍

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    This article shows that the market for wildlife as 'medicine' or food in China is very strong. It will go underground. China allows for the consumption of wildlife for 'medicinal' reasons (even now) and it is easy to claim that status.

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    The WHO shud be renamed "Chinese Health Organisation" Its a communist organisation run by China

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    Lack of testing by many countries (Canada is a great example) has resulted in an uncertain extended period of lockdown, with no end goal in sight. Without testing, countries do not have sufficient data sets to determine accurate rates of spread and severity of infection…..which is needed to determine ongoing non-pharma intervention policies. Locking people up for several months without a known ending is proof of poor preparedness and unqualified management.

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    If you get infected but you're asymphtomatic, do you still get secondary problems caused by the virus in your system?

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    R subscript 0 is the R value at t=0, i.e. the natural reproductive rate before introducing measures. You may wish to correct this mistake in the future as it could be confusing. It does not change, where as R does.

  29. Avatar

    These thumbs down are so juvenile, you bots and boneheads. Thanks for great and powerful content John!

  30. Avatar

    Dr. John: You'd better be saving all papers so you can make a primer book when this is over for future generations and our kids and grandkids! Please ?! Ask for volunteers to make transcripts of your videos!

  31. Avatar

    You need to narrow N = to just Lombardy area, then take your percentages in all Lombardy, positives and death numbers. I did this for Wuhan and they certainly differ.  If their R number is 1.67% (too low in my opinion) and there are 11 million in Wuhan area then that’s 183,700 people infected. JHU.COM MAP reports only 82,000 in HUBEI Prov./WUHAN. Give this a think… (there are no entire China numbers I could find) if entire country of China is 1.47 billion (I added 5% from 2019 pop #s) then R 1.67% number is:  24,549,000 infected! 7,364 deaths at 0.03% and 17,675 deaths at 0.072%.  Had fun asking Siri to do the math…I got these %s from death rate, US modelers predicting…  US pop is 330,000,000 and they predicting  0.03% deaths is 100K to 240,000 is 0.072% Some math whiz check my math too. Latest Medscape posted all of us Med Professionals who have died worldwide. It's an evolving list that can be added to, so honor those among us who are fallen heroes! So many in Italy.

  32. Avatar

    Here is a graph of mortality by country:

  33. Avatar

    thanks again, good dr.

  34. Avatar

    will we all eventually get the antibody test?

  35. Avatar

    Hello, the RKI (Robert Koch Institute) in Germany has sent a letter to all pathologies in which an autopsy of deaths should be avoided, allegedly due to dangerous aerosols. For this reason, the number of cases cannot be determined exactly. Germany had around 25,000 flu deaths in the 2018/2019 flu season.

  36. Avatar

    I'm wondering now if people haven't already got covid19 there less likely to get it now ? Asking as lockdown rules remain

  37. Avatar

    Will Dr. John Campbell also narrate the aftereffects of this disease in terms of him over hyping a virus with a relatively low fatality rate that is destined to go latent in the human population in terms of world governments being overthown, economic dislocations/collapse and the ensuing human suffering?

    I doubt he will. He can only see so far as direct consequences for the government responses he advocates. He will sod off in short order once the pandemic passes if the global geopolitical scene is utterly fooked. He doesn't care about that or has no comprehension or concern for those aspects.

  38. Avatar

    Hi John. Very glad to see you exploring some of this modeling that attempts to peer into the the "real" number of cases out there.

    Consider Germany for a moment. Very widespread testing in Germany. They have tested about 1M people, or a bit over 1% of their population. Of those tested about 10% are positive, ~100K confirmed cases. Extrapolate that out to the other 99% that have not been infected, and it's reasonable to figure that something like 10M people in Germany either have this or have already had it. With ~1000 deaths at this point, accounting for a lag time that equates to about a 0.04% death rate.

    Places like Spain and Italy have about 10X as many dead from this, which points to an actual case count for these countries in the many tens of millions based on what we can learn from Germany's data. This is great news, as it means that something like 50% or better of the population has already been infected, and in a few weeks from now, the daily case count and death rates are going to plummet, and they will have a pretty decent heard immunity sorted out.

    Remember, the 1.88-11.43% estimate there, is based on ALL of those countries. I don't believe these were intended to be interpreted as the BOUNDS for any one country. In fact, Italy and Spain are very likely to be far beyond 11.43% of their populations infected.

  39. Avatar

    <60 GIGA HERTZ >
    Why is "60 GIGA HERTZ" important?
    < O X Y G E N >
    IN THE:
    < ATMOSPHERE! ! ! >
    *SPIN-STATE! ! !
    FOR THE:
    TO: < BIND > TO YOUR:
    IF THE:
    < H Y O X P I A > MEANING:

  40. Avatar

    All countries who are slaves to USA implement restrictions (recommended by the globalists) – after one month "miraculously" a vaccine will be invented – and a mandatory invisible tattoo for everybody. Just wait and see.

    Bill Gates had this technology for years, they just waited for a "crisis" to happen.

  41. Avatar

    If you want to stay well, listen to this Doctor.

  42. Avatar

    Is it me, or do these claims of "massive deaths" seem to ring hollow? 60,000 deaths worldwide in 3 months? And many times that many influenza deaths? Yes, COVID is one nasty disease, but the hysteria seems to exceed the reality. Few people will become acutely ill, many of those that do are elderly and/or sick already with other diseases. Why not put a protective ring around those at risk? Just focus the effort on the most vulnerable. The response should mirror the severity of the disease.

  43. Avatar

    Hardly good news, as the problem has never really been whether 0.1%, 1% or 3% die, but it has always been the paralysing and complete overwhelming effect it has on nations healthcare system (and the absurd economic damage that's suffered to cope with that).

    This video is like jumping on your chair because the interest on your savings account has gone up to 0.5% while you have just been made redundant…

  44. Avatar

    I appreciate that you keep calling for MASSIVE testing. The trouble is, your message gets a bit watered down when you say things like "you implement these lockdown measures, and then you wait" , or when you don't add to your message "and contact tracing" with significant emphasis [because without contact tracing, there is (a) little perceived cost-benefit of testing when public authorities just assume that everyone's infected or soon will be and (b) expert modelling groups like the publishers of that paper are little motivated to show what the models would say about the HUGE benefits of testing- benefits that only ensue as an outcome of contact identification and thus the reduction of epidemic dynamics to clustering. PLEASE keep banging on the drum for massive testing AND contact-tracing.

  45. Avatar

    I note that the study skipped Iceland, where contact tracing (following testing) has given a dramatic benefit. So incidentally has the Canadian province of British Columbia (whereas other provinces, esp. Quebec and Ontario have Italy-like explosive dynamics: where testing was lack-lustre and contact-tracing less so). In later vids you note the signs of success in Australia, which involves more statistical testing and (I hope) contact-tracing, just as Germany has begun to realize. This message of needed testing AND contact-tracing, to change the dynamics back to clustering, is vital.

  46. Avatar

    If the infection rate is so much higher than the confirmed rate, I wouldn't be so comfortable as you seem about saying the mortality rate is accordingly 'lower' just from the numbers shown. I say that because as you acknowledge, the higher number of unknowingly infected people represents a lot of 'cases' that are not 'cases' of experienced illness. In other words, the higher recorded death rates from recorded 'cases' (not a bad definition of what it is to be a 'case') more truly reflect how many of those who get feeling quite ill – ill enough to get positively diagnosed – will die. And the latter number probably more closely indicates the higher percentage of persons of significant age (say, over 60) and with the health complications that come with age, who are at risk of death. Because I agree with you (despite the opposite ethical trend in western medicine) that it is concern for the vulnerable that should drive the delivery of health services AND the deployment of extensive testing and contact-tracing. I would even advocate that far more persons over 60 should be tested, while probably a larger percentage of younger folk (those who ARE tested positive) should have their contacts traced (excepting seniors who live in seniors' lodges – all of whose cohort should be contact-traced).

  47. Avatar

    It is also disturbing that even these modelling experts didn't seem all that interested in modelling the clearly shown benefits of contact-tracing. It suggests that, thoughtful though they may be as epidemiological applied mathematicians, this was not raised as a key ingredient of their research terms of reference (perhaps by the funding body or academic affiliations). Please help get the message out, so this CAN become a term of reference.

  48. Avatar

    At the outset in the paper the writers state "Our methods assume that changes in the
    reproductive number – a measure of transmission – are an immediate response to these interventions
    being implemented rather than broader gradual changes in behaviour." The optimism gleaned from the model is hardly justified however, giving the fact that public compliance has a very significant delay: a delay that exceeds even the asymptomatic lag. It would be valuable to make the model more realistic with that effect AND to model again using alternate approaches than 'mechanistic' Bayesian: such as other 'perceptron' studies of the data in the manner of its actual historic data-evolution, and even modified S-I-R deterministic models.

  49. Avatar

    What do you think about all kind of waves, radio waves, in the world? How do they affect our bodies? Aren't we humans made of electricity too? So there must be inteference, no? Could such electric waves mess up our cells? Maybe even to the point where cells become faulty and start producing garbage, virus like? Wuhan was the first city with full coverage of 5G mobile networks…

  50. Avatar

    To see what I mean on modelled benefits at least of testing and isolation: a well-paced vid at 3Blue1Brown (popular math site) [ ] covers this up to 10:26 of the 23 minute run. It's well explained, but omits the added benefit of contact-tracing. I'm searching for that.

  51. Avatar

    Sure would be nice if Doc John would admit China lied and people have died. Just saying. Quit being a Shill John.

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    In point of fact the video at 3Blue1Brown [ @ ] does advert to the benefits of contact-tracing, but the S-I-R model did not develop that simulation. Nevertheless, the message repeated in the one minute from 19:47 to 20:47 of the video shows clear benefits of the first phase: aggressive identification (testing) and isolation. With contact-tracing included, it is fair to expect that a good realistic model will show that the level of population testing need not be 'everyone' to have an epidemic drop below endemic to 'hypodemic' – the best outcome.

  53. Avatar


  54. Avatar

    I will be sending congratulatory and grateful replies.your videos are great!

  55. Avatar

    Without war, government doesn't exist. Earth's misery is a business model. God is not mocked, you reap what you sow.
    Hell has room for all sinners. This is Bible prophecy of the end times, the Beginning of Sorrows prior to the antichrist's great tribulation destruction period, then the end of creation and God's judgement day on sin. Read the King James Bible.

  56. Avatar

    And can those who have been effected could they be re effected by the cv ?

  57. Avatar

    Wow! What an ending!

  58. Avatar

    For the numbers for Norway which you are not sure, you can check the largest news paper vg dott no On the top, they have the numbers quite easily available. But I think you will be able to figure it out anyway. My take is that testing in Norway is quite wide, while still restricted. It has exceeded 100.000.

  59. Avatar

    Dr. Fauci calls for national suicide!

  60. Avatar

    The attack rate? Just what does that mean? its always called the infection rate. Stay alert i dont trust what we are being told is correct

  61. Avatar

    Lots of undetected cases here, my family had it wk of March 11, no tests here, no one counts any of us, rural GA,

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    You should know we can not catch a virus . they have to be injected. Virus is a solvent created by the body to detox itself.

  63. Avatar

    Maybe the Good dr can explain how Fauci is able to predict a virus outbreak years ago?……

  64. Avatar

    How many dies because of the lockdowns, and for how long will we need to have them? When will mental health lead to more deaths than the virus? I don't think Dr John Campbell discuss the whole picture.

  65. Avatar

    If Italy is in complete lock down how are they still getting cases? In south korea that have not locked down at all and they have very few deaths. Bit confused about that

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    13:18 you forgot to account for the lag, more of the 1128000 infected at time t are sadly expected to die later on which bumps the death rate significantly, but kudos for using the lower (more pessimistic) estimation of the attack rate.

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    On top, you have to figure out the average death rate and the actual death rate. Some of the corona cases are probably included in the anyway expected death rate. And people can die also because of the lockdown … (being afraid of going to the hospital, being left to themselves etc.)

  68. Avatar

    Plz make a video about vermectine medicine for treating covid-19

  69. Avatar

    They are lying about what is COVID-19 and what is other viruses or corresponding diseases, that is what we observe here in Denmark. The death numbers and the infected numbers are all made up

  70. Avatar

    Think about exponential function those number unlikely and no widespread reporting of mild symptoms, to get to 6 mill the few days before it would have been 3 million

  71. Avatar

    It is my belief that a significant ratio of the European and UK populace have had this virus, in the latter part of 2019 and the first two months of 2020.
    The obvious reason for this is that China did not report there epidemic, in a 'timely manner'….But why?
    There is data from many hospital wards,throughout the UK, that show a higher incedence of respiratory conditions than normal, with abnormal, underlying symptons and with a higher fatality rate, during that period that I have aforementioned……Suspicious?

  72. Avatar

    anyone else in the US having problems connecting to Dr. Campbell's website? I am in NYC and regularly on British websites, so i find this odd. I get "The proxy server could not handle the request GET /.

    Reason: Error during SSL Handshake with remote server"

  73. Avatar

    This virus is a fraud..

  74. Avatar

    These calculations are a bit faulty because they are bases on static numbers. The penetration of the virus into the general population is much different in the north of the country versus the south of the country.

  75. Avatar

    there's always good news.

  76. Avatar

    What is the name of that fountain pen he’s using.

  77. Avatar

    This makes me feel so much better. Thank you Doctor

  78. Avatar

    yes, we wont know until we look back. for example, if there are three time as many people with slight symptoms or even medium symptoms that stay at home and gut it out , they are not counted in the denominator. You wont be able to do any meaningful death rate calculation until you survey with antibody tests, and huge regional and representative samples. In fact, an Stanford epidemiologist working on this says It could be .01 even. will most the link above

  79. Avatar

    Thanks SO much for your practical, concise factual reports, only one I believe 👍

  80. Avatar

    Spain and Italy also have the highest elderly and smokers. Lungs are already in a weaken state.

  81. Avatar

    So David Hunter South Korea has the antibody test which has not been signed off here yet?

  82. Avatar

    (Not qualified, but still)
    I think those very high unsymptomatic percentages sounds too good to be true.
    If the virus was that widespread, the outbreaks would not be so localized.

    There is off course the chance that slight genetic differences may result in different outcomes.
    -Or that if a person gets a high virus-load trough close contact, they are likely to get very sick while a person breathing in a low amount of aerosols only gets a mild version.

    Still – I think there are too many hotspots instead of a more random distribution.

  83. Avatar

    I don't think the Imperial college modellers are in fact very conservative. The main guy in their team said 150,000 would die due to mad cow disease (200 died)

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    Imperial college is not to be trusted trust me

  85. Avatar

    I am happy if those #s are correct and even happier that they are coming out this late in the crisis! I believe if a person like Trump had seen a 1.0% or lower death rate, he would have just ignored the crisis and let it run its coarse.

  86. Avatar

    You are a garbage doctor, and on top of that your science is very questionable. Brush up on your Biology, Genetics and Math please.

  87. Avatar

    Do you wanna know why you are a bad scientist, its because you are using data from an unproven unreliable source. Last night the total deaths went from 1.5mil to 1.49mil due to a "correction" , can't correct data thats already bad… John Hopkins was part of the Event 201 planning . You are stripped of your credentials officially by the Scholars.

  88. Avatar

    good news like this are available on interactive world map:

  89. Avatar

    Dr. Campbell, thanks for your insights regarding the Imperial College of London model and paper. Your comments are very interesting and in alignment with other information I have been reading regarding the COVID-19 fatality rate.

    Stanford professor, Dr. Bhattacharya, stated his belief that the fatality rate is probably much lower than the 3.4% being reported by the WHO and in the media. Dr. Bhattacharya's figures are based the rated of spread in the infection when it entered the US in January and the number of reported deaths. Consistent with the Imperial College of London Model, Dr. Bhattacharya estimates that the fatality rate is most likely between 0.05% and 0.9% (see the link below).

    Also, a very important study by Professor Hendrick Streeck, the University of Bonn director of the Institute of Virology, was just completed where they performed antibody testing in one of Germany's cities with a high incidence of virus and they found that the fatality rate is 0.37% (see the CNBC report of the German study at the link below). If this fatality rate is substantiated through additional antibody tests, this has huge implications on the projected number of deaths and indicates that a much larger percentage of the population has been exposed and recovered. Furthermore, this information will be very important in determining plans to restart the economy while maintaining public health.

    "Questioning Conventional Wisdom in the COVID-19 Crisis, with Dr. Jay Bhattacharya"

    CNBC report on German COVID-19 Antibody Study (w/Professor Hendrick Streeck, University of Bonn director of the Institute of Virology and Institute for HIV Research)

  90. Avatar

    1 % of 7 400 000 000, even 0.1-0.5% of this is still a lot of lost souls. =( agreed lag effect and poor regions of the world with less good health care sytems. 4.5-5-6% for global calculations isn't exagerated? we could also mention in Italy they don't run aroudn with wooden clubs anymore, theyh ave a preety good and effective health system, when IOmaginaing this hits India, Pakistan, Sub Saharian affrica cry =( Italy also got quite kind of hit from the back, they and Spain were Europes guinea picks in some way? I'm even thankfull to their deaths, without them our alarm bells wouldn't have gone off and measures taken in northern Europe. Thanks to all of them and a nice journey on the white sands and green fields! xD "It's not the end, just a way we all must walk." (Tolkien) Even if I totally agree we don't like to walk it, since every living organisms goal is to survive.

  91. Avatar


    Country Total Deaths Deaths/ 1M pop population

    Germany 3118 37 83 million

    UK 11329 167 67 million

    maybe we should talk more to the Germans and see what exactly they are doing differently to us.

    If I want to improve ( reduce ) I look at the best example and not at the worst ( just to make me feel better).

    It's people and not cars!

    Just to remind people everything is relative

    Berlin – According to estimates, the extraordinarily strong flu wave 2017/18 cost the lives of around 25100 people in Germany. That is the highest number of deaths in the past 30 years, as the President of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), Lothar Wieler said.

  92. Avatar

    Numbers of real cases of COVID-19 in NYC based on random sampling of pregnant women at one NYC hospital: Answer is approx 1,000,000

  93. Avatar

    If you listen to Dr Judy Milkovits studies , mention of any vaccine for covid 19 would send you into a panic …..we need to research more and question those who promote vaccines !

  94. Avatar

    Going for all the countries in Western Europe.. and where is Portugal??

  95. Avatar

    It took this virus to allow people to be at home this Thanksgiving who would have had to be working so others could shop for Christmas. There is a silver lining.

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